Cambridge B1 Preliminary

B1 Preliminary - Gapped Text Exercise 15

Five sentences have been removed from the text below. For each question, choose the correct answer and write the letter in the box. There are three extra sentences which you do not need to use.

The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution was a time of great change that started in Britain during the 18th century. It marked the shift from a largely rural society to an urban one. _____1_____ This period saw the birth of new industries and the development of new ways of working.

Before the Industrial Revolution, most people lived in small villages and worked on farms. _____2_____ But everything changed with the invention of the steam engine and other machines. These inventions made production quicker and cheaper.

The textile industry was one of the first to be transformed. With the invention of the Spinning Jenny and the power loom, cloth could be made much faster than by hand. _____3_____ This led to a huge increase in the production of cloth and a fall in its price.

The Revolution also brought about changes in transportation. Before, goods were transported by horses or by boats on rivers. _____4_____ The steam engine allowed trains to carry goods and people quickly over long distances. This made trade more efficient.

Life during the Industrial Revolution was not easy for everyone. While factory owners grew rich, many workers lived in poor conditions. _____5_____ Children as young as six were made to work long hours in dangerous factories.

Despite the hardships, the Industrial Revolution brought about many positive changes. It led to the creation of jobs, increased wealth, and improvements in living standards. It also laid the foundations for the modern world we live in today.


A. It led, however, to great disruption in society with both positive and negative effects.

B. However, they worked long hours for little pay.

C. With the building of canals and railways, goods could be transported much more easily and quickly.

D. The pace of life was slow and most goods were made by hand.

E. These machines were powered by water and later by steam.

F. They were often crowded into small, dirty houses with no running water or proper sanitation.

G. However, these new machines were large and needed to be housed in factories.

H. But to move all these goods around the country, transportation became vital.

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