Grammar - Elementary
We use some adverbs in English to describe how a verb is performed.
He hit the ball brilliantly.
You can see that we add "-ly" to the end of the adjective root of a word.
The adverb of the adjective bad is badly but the adverb of the adjective good is well.
She played very badly and lost the match.
Some adjectives and adverbs are spelt the same way: fast, late, hard.
We use other adverbs in English to describe adjectives and other adverbs:
I was terribly sorry to hear about your father's death.
Adverbs of Frequency
We use adverbs of frequency to describe How Often we do something.
How often does it rain in the Sahara? Rarely.
Frequency adverbs normally go after the verb "to be" but before other verbs.
I am always happy on a Saturday night.
She sometimes smokes cigars.
Some frequency adverbs such as sometimes, usually and normally can also go at the beginning and end of a sentence.
Sometimes, Henry takes her to a restaurant at the weekend.
We sometimes use numbers when we answer How Often.
Q: How often do you play tennis?
Or we can use an expression such as:
Once every six months.
'Going To' and Present Continuous for Future
The future is one area of English grammar that seems to cause so many problems for students learning English.
One way of expressing the future is to use " be going to" plus the infinitive of the verb:
She is going to visit her uncle in Monaco next summer.
Another, with a near identical meaning, is the present continuous which we covered earlier:
She is buying a house near Paris before the end of the year.
You can see from these two examples that we are expressing a plan, something we already we know we are going to do. Something we thought about earlier.
I'm going into town tomorrow. I already have my ticket.
We also use going to to talk about something we think will happen in the future because of evidence we see now.
There is going to be a terrible storm. Look at the black sky!
When we talk about something we intended to do in the past, but then changed our minds, we use was going to.
I was going to ring you, but then I saw I didn't have your number
Prepositions Of Time
Before different time expressions, English uses different prepositions.
On Sunday, I get up at nine o'clock.
Here is a summary of prepositions to use with different time expressions:
Last week, I went to work at nine o'clock every morning.
We use whose to ask "who owns this?"
Q: Whose house is this?
In the answer, it is common to use a possessive pronoun.
Q: Whose is this pen?
Here is a list of these possessive pronouns:
Whose can also be used alone as a question:
A: I went to work by car.
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