Grammar - Elementary
Present Continuous Structure
The present continuous is easy to form. We use the verb "to be" plus the verb in the ____ing form.
He is swimming in the river.
Here is the verb talk conjugated in the present continuous.
Note. There are certain spelling changes when verb are put into the continuous form:
Consonants after a vowel are doubled.
get - getting
Final "e" is dropped.
love - loving
Exceptions to these two rules.
A word of more than one syllable with the first syllable stressed does not double the consonant.
visit - visited NOT doubled as first syllable is stressed.
be - being final "e" is NOT dropped.
Present Continuous Use
The Present Continuous is used to describe an action that is going on at this moment, at the time of speaking.
You are using your computer to study the internet.
It is also used to describe an action that is going on during this period of time but not necessarily at this exact moment.
I am reading a good book about Polish mushrooms.
We can use the Present Continuous to describe an action or event in the future, which has already been planned or prepared. You should see here for more information on that on this page.
We can use this tense also to describe a temporary event or situation.
He usually goes to work by bus but this week, he is using the train because there is a strike on the buses.
Many verbs aren't used in the continuous form
I don't understand what you mean.
Verbs like this include: feel, hear, see, smell, taste, believe, consider, doubt, forget, imagine, know, mean, notice, recognise, remember and understand.
Comparatives and Superlatives
We use comparative and superlative adjectives when we want to compare and contrast things.
a) India is a big country.
Sentence a) uses the base adjective, sentence b) uses the comparative and sentence c) uses the superlative.
Here is how we form these adjectives:
Madrid is bigger than Lisbon but London is the biggest city in Europe.
There are some irregulars:
Good - Better - The Best
Tina Turner is not the best singer in the world.
We use "as ____ as" to describe things which are equal:
Rome is as hot as Madrid in August.
We can use other expressions before these adjectives to give emphasis.
She is much taller than her husband.
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